First of all, may I congratulate and thank Brendan (and all the quality speakers) on another great online strength and conditioning conference - Meeting of the Minds 2015. I tuned in last year and it really is an innovative idea that seems to work very well.
For those that didn't catch it all, I've included a Storify timeline of some of the main tweets throughout this year's Meeting of the Minds online conference. Over the next week, I will put together a post with some more detailed thoughts.
Emotional eating is a tricky topic. Whenever I talk to the people about the sort of work that I do and mention emotional eating, people will readily identify with this aspect. ‘Yeah, I definitely think I do that, is that bad?’
The fact is, we are all emotional eaters to some extent or another. We know that eating (or not eating for that matter) is intricately related to how we think and feel. Take a situation when you might have gone food shopping when you were very hungry. Now compare this to a similar situation, but you are feeling very full. You’ll probably have made very different decisions. Even if you haven’t, you’ll certainly think and feel differently about what you are putting into your basket. From very early on, the food we eat becomes entangled in a web of developmental experiences that relate to how well we emotionally attach to others (or not), how well and how we learn to regulate our emotions, and how we relate a range of emotional experiences with those of hunger and satiety.
The connection is even prominent in our day to day vocabulary. We can ‘swallow our pride’, we can literally become ‘fed-up’ with someone, or something. How many sitcoms and movies have you seen where the protagonist is encouraged by (usually her) friends to crack out a (usually large) tub of ice cream to help regulate, avoid or manage their emotionally turbulent roller coaster of a story line? Despite its prominence, it would be foolhardy to assume that emotional eating is necessarily maladaptive, or symptomatic of an underlying issue.
Is emotional eating, comfort eating?
Emotional eating is also often oversimplified. People tend to jump to the conclusion that we eat emotionally, because we are seeking comfort. In fact, there are multiple potential explanations for the cause of emotional eating in each of our lives. Yes, some people do eat to regulate emotions, others might do so to avoid, or block them. People sometimes eat to communicate emotions to themselves or others or in response to trauma or stress. Cognitive models of emotional eating explain some patterns as a result of certain schemas. Does the individual feel entitled, abandoned or deprived?
Just as there is no single cause to an eating disorder, there is no single model that would seem to fully explain the cause of emotional eating in a given individual. It is highly context specific and as ever, there is no easy answer.
What do we do about emotional eating?
If emotional eating is problematic for an individual, it is first useful to understand if there are any deficits or difficulties in the process of of managing emotions for an individual.
We might want to look at how well someone can recognise their emotions. Some people have become so disconnected from certain feelings that they can no longer easily identify them. This can be known as Alexithymia -basically an inability to identify and describe emotions in the self. In other situations, people are not disconnected, but cannot place a given emotion. Feeling fat for example, can often be the expression of another unrecognised feeling or emotion. A lot of people feel fat from time to time. A good question to ask yourself in this situation is “I wonder what else I might be feeling?”
Having recognised the emotion(s), it is then a case of learning to tolerate them. If we are to disconnect any sense of maladaptive relationship between a given emotion and eating behaviour, the individual needs to be able to ride the initial impulse of escaping, avoiding or quietening that emotion.
This can be helped through the process of validation. Emotions are a part of all of us. They are used to communicate or pass on information within ourselves, and between ourselves and our environment. Some of us need to learn that It is not ‘right or wrong’ to feel anything. Guilt is a good example. Have you ever asked yourself why do we ‘feel guilty’? One function is that it helps regulate social boundaries. We might feel guilty after minor (and major) indiscretions. For example, I still feel a pang of guilt when I think back to the actions of my 14-year old self. I still vividly remember walking into my brother’s room, who was diligently working away on an essay. In a misplaced bid for attention, I flicked the off button on his PC - cue utter chaos. In the aftermath, while I may have denied it at the time, I didn’t feel great about it. The behaviour or action may have been ill-advised, but the emotional response was appropriate. If I had somehow learned at an early age that both my actions AND my emotional response to those actions as inappropriate, I might have developed other ways of managing that emotion. Some people also then learn to associate what they consider to be ‘unacceptable’ emotions to core self beliefs. E.g. I shouldn’t be feeling this, therefore I’m flawed/I'm a bad person. We must all learn that most emotions are an entirely natural and necessary response to our behaviours and environment.
Finally, we come to management. We can all learn to develop a set of skills to manage our emotions. Whether we need to improve our communication skills, assertiveness or ability to soothe ourselves without food, we still cannot begin the process building emotional resilience without first learning to recognise, tolerate and validate the emotions we feel. It is is a complex process, and takes time, so for now, I’ll leave it there.
In another post, I’ll cover some of the strategies that might be useful to deploy throughout this process. If you have any questions or feedback, please don’t hesitate to email me (email@example.com) or follow me/tweet me (@acbcoaching). As every, any shares to people you might think would benefit from reading this post would be much appreciated.
Prevalence rates of Eating Disorders in Sports are not necessarily higher than in the general population.
Sport participants are still however at higher risk of developing Eating Disorders than the general population.
There is no single cause to an Eating Disorder
Subclinical and Partial diagnoses of Eating Disorders in Sport are high!
All Sport Participants have a responsibility to be aware of the added risk factors unique to sport that might promote the development of an Eating Disorder.
Its Eating Disorders Awareness week, and I wanted to write a blog with some useful information that might help with raising awareness of Eating Disorders, especially as they relate to Sport.
How common are Eating Disorders in Sport?
When it comes to estimating prevalence, its tricky ground for a number of reasons. For one, the diagnostic criteria of Eating Disorders (ED) has recently changed. Those who were not diagnosed before the release of DSM-V in 2013 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) could now be classified. For example, amenorrhea is no longer a necessary characteristic for the diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa. Classifications of different types of sports, lean or nonlean, aesthetic etc also differ between studies and further the picture. Consider also, that those who suffer from an Eating Disorder often might not consider themselves to have a problem (think therefore what they might or might not say when filling out a questionnaire). Individuals also have a funny way of not fitting neatly into one box or another, and can also move from one ED to another. When you look at the research I’ll be the first to admit, there are clear limitations in some of the studies that churn out these numbers, and some quite conflicting information produced.
Some suggest that sport participation seems to have a positive effect on behaviours and attitudes relating to eating and our bodies. In others there seems to be clear patterns where individuals (especially women) competing in lean, aesthetic, endurance sport are more likely to have ED than non-athletes. But before you’ve made up your mind you can find a host of work that suggests quite the opposite, that some athletes are actually healthier, are at less risk and do not have more eating problems than non-athletes.
So do sport participants suffer from more ED than those that don’t do sport? On balance, probably a little. But the same messy research landscape presents itself when we ask other questions about ED prevalence within sport. For example, does the level of competition influence the prevalence? Again, its hard to say. You’d probably think the more competitive the worse it gets - stakes are higher, margins are finer. Eventual Conclusion? More relaxed competitive levels of sport are probably not protective, and elite levels aren’t necessarily predictive of ED.
So where does this leave us? Prevalence rates of ED within sport are variable. Its probably safer to assume that sport is but a microcosm of wider society. Personally, I am not sure that prevalence is of that great a relevance or use to the general population anyway. For those that have been through them, worked with people with ED or have had friends or family battle against them, the fact that they exist at all is bad enough. What is important to appreciate is that because the development on ED depends upon a host of developmental, genetic, and environmental factors (i.e. there is no single cause to an ED), we all have a responsibility to be aware of, and manage those risks that specific to our environment. We know that sport participants are exposed to the same risk factors as the general population, as wellas those that come from sport. Although this is not necessarily expressed in higher prevalence when it comes to the development of ‘full on’ Eating Disorder, sport does expose its participants to a greater number of risk factors associated with ED.
What is worrying, that when you drop down to partial or subclinical diagnoses of ED, we are faced with a far bleaker picture. These are the people that we might consider to suffer from disordered eating, or are symptomatic of a greater classification but don’t quite tick all the boxes. I have seen estimations of disordered eating within sport (and particularly those at higher levels of sport) range from 18-46%! Sport participation is often referred to as part of the ‘solution’ to the a worsening picture of global health (obesity, inactivity and chronic illness). I can’t help but wonder what might happen as this discussion continues to evolve. Might we exert further pressure on those in sport who are already symptomatic? Might we be trading one potential health risk for another by directing people towards sport?
Eating Disorders in Sport - What are the risks?
In order to understand, treat and potentially prevent eating disorders is it useful to know the difference between what are the general risk factors we all face, and the additional ones we might be facing that are specific to sport. As I mentioned previously there is no single cause to an eating disorder and their occurrence will come from a multitude of genetic and sociocultural (media, family, peers) factors. We don’t need to avoid sport therefore, but we should be cognisant of, and do our best to avoid/lessen the specific risk factors it brings with it.
Weight/Body Fat = Enhanced performance
This is often taken as gospel, yet you might be surprised to know that the literature is can be quite equivocal when you look at the relationship between bodyweight/fat and performance. I am sure the old school amongst you will be turning your noses up in disgust at this point. I am not denying that bodyweight is a factor in sporting performance, but neither is it an independent variable we can manipulate without consequence. Pay attention to this next sentence. It is unethical for any individual, coach or practitioner to advise weight loss to an athlete or another individual without specialist knowledge and training. If you don’t have this expertise and have not consulted with health professionals that understand the implications both from a nutritional and psychological perspective, you should not be saying anything. In sport you definitely can do more harm than good. If you work with athletes. de-emphasise weight and know your limitations.
Similarities between a 'good athlete’ and characteristics of eating disorders
The ability to perform despite pain and discomfort, mental toughness, unrelenting commitment and pursuit of excellence are all traits that are associated with what most might consider a ‘good athlete’. These are therefore behaviours that are positively rewarded within sport. These traits however are very similar to several characteristics of eating disorders. The denial of discomfort, asceticism, excessive exercise and perfectionism are all traits that might put an individual at risk of developing an eating disorder. Sport is not black and white, lines get blurred, and nothing is clear cut. Not only might these traits expose certain athletes to greater risk, but the fact that they potentially complicate the identification of a problem should also be considered a risk.
As alluded to above, the positive reinforcement of behaviour symptomatic of an eating disorder is also a big problem in sport. Consider these two examples. Excessive exercise and dieting for weight loss. I’m sure we all know many in the endurance community who might fall into these categories. You may be shaking your head here too, but bottom line is, almost all those that suffer from ED have dieted (often multiple times). For certain people it can be a precipitant of ED, or make their current ED worse. I’ll say it again, de-emphasise weight. If you want to reward and encourage others, make it about things they have done to improve their health, not lose weight (even if these might sometimes be related in overweight individuals). When it comes to excessive exercise, this can be something a bulimic does instead of purging, or to justify eating, or as a result of eating. Its also a common characteristic in Anorexia also. Often one the last symptoms to disappear and one that can cause the persistence of an eating disorder, be careful what you say. Its difficult to identify, especially in ultra-endurance sports but before you next congratulate your friend on their ‘epic run streak’, just stop and think, what else could you say?
Sport specific expectations, ideals and norms
Each sport has its own subcultural idiosyncrasies. Be aware of these. Pathogenic behaviour relating to cutting weight or maintaining a low weight are common in jockeys, in boxing, wrestling etc. Think of body ideals. Triathlon is a particularly tricky one, as each sport emphasises different ‘ideal’ body shapes. Its impossible to be all three. Are you promoting these ways of thinking in what you say, are others? If so you could be increasing the pressure on an individual to conform. When it comes to pressure relating to shape, weight and body image this is a big no-no!!
While there are other potential risk factors relating to sport I hope this has provided a bit of insight into some of the more significant and obvious dangers that sport might present with regard to the development of eating disorders. Sport can either pose a direct risk, exacerbate or obscure the identification and delay treatment of full and subclinical eating disorders.
If anyone has any questions or interested in any references that I have not mentioned, please email me (firstname.lastname@example.org) or contact me on @acbcoaching through twitter and I’d be happy to discuss. Again, I’d love it you could share this article in the spirit of eating disorder awareness week. If anyone would like to find out more about Eating Disorders, I’d recommend visiting the National Centre for Eating Disorders website.
So I was recently asked on twitter by a triathlete for some hints and tips recovering from a severe injury picked up in base training. He wanted to know what he might be able to do both physically and psychologically to improve his situation.
The injured triathlete has competitive aspirations over middle distance triathlon, but has struggled with leg pain over the last couple of seasons. In late 2013 he was diagnosed with a stress fracture (having raced through the injury) and after 2 months out then encountered persistent problems with the same leg throughout 2014. Despite this he still managed to qualify for the Ironman 70.3 World Championships for 2015. At the end of the season, he went for some scans and was diagnosed with compartment syndrome. After undergoing surgery (a fasciectomy) he unfortunately then picked up an infection, and this is where we find ourselves. He’s gained a little weight through inactivity, and his thoughts are unsurprisingly focused on his hard earned slot at the World Champs at the end of August. He’s also entered Ironman Wales in mid-September.
So what would I recommend? Well there are lots of things I could say, and lots of ways I could say it. I haven’t spent time building a relationship with this athlete, so can’t even guess at what he might respond best to. Therefore I’ll say the things I think he needs to hear, not necessarily what he might want to hear. It therefore may seem a little blunt. It will be quite general and not partitioned into psychological and physical, but I hope of some use.
A little over 1 month ago, you’ve had surgery. Read that again. Thats right, someone has knocked you out with drugs, and cut you open. They’ve done this because you have a chronic problem that has interrupted your training for the last 2 years. Sounds pretty stressful to me. To make things worse, you’ve also had an infection, another major stressor on your body. Hobbling around on crutches always seemed so cool when you were 7 years old, but in reality it sucks (I guess at 7 most of us didn’t have jobs and meals to cook). Realistically, recovery from fasciectomy is going to be at least a 3-4 month timeline before you get back to any consistent form of training for triathlon. I’d change that for you if I could. But I can’t. No one can. It’s just the way it is. You need to accept this first and foremost - regardless of what it might mean for your season and the races you’ve qualified for. This means that for now, you need to let go of how you think you might do at the Worlds. You need to let go of how you think you might do at Ironman Wales. You need to do this because you can’t yet accurately predict what you’ve got to work with. There are many obstacles to first negotiate.
Let’s not wallow though. We can use realism for the positive too. Time goes on. The days will tick by and you will recover. Get professional advice and implement it. This doesn’t mean smashing it out of the park the first set of physio exercises you are prescribed and setting yourself back even further. This means trusting and believing in your support team. Trust that you will heal. Know that you can come back stronger. Nothing has changed in the principles behind your training. Do the right things consistently and you will improve. Better still, next time you reach your best, you’ll have a fully functioning leg to boot!
Focus on what matters and be constructive
As you will know by now, injuries don’t look at your race season and considerately time themselves for optimal convenience. Referencing your current athleticism, body composition and state of mind with where you would have been without the injury is pointless. Based on what you’ve told me, you’ve ignored this issue before and lived through the consequences. Having the surgery is a necessary step on your athletic journey. Unnecessary steps on your athletic journey might be include looking at where you would have been in your training by now, or at reports on Twitter and Facebook of others putting in epic training sessions. I hope this short video proves my point.
Focus on what matters - Focus on how you can support your recovery. It’s not going to be an easy ride. In fact is probably going to feel slow, boring and frustrating. Your recovery is going to be a winding path. A real challenge. But you thrive on challenges. Do remember though, that even if you do exactly what your physio says, neither (s)he nor I can guarantee your recovery will improve in a linear fashion day to day. It’s just not how it works. What you can guarantee your attendance, your commitment, your effort. Use your time back in the gym to learn and practise all the things you know you should be able to do. Master the basic movement competencies. Train around your injury too. Earn the right to progress. Come back stronger in every way.
Your lack of activity is not going to be helping your mood, and its quite common for an endurance athlete to put on a little weight when injured. How we eat is largely habitual, and so when activity levels change dramatically it can take a little while (and can be difficult) to adjust how much and what we eat. Recovering from injury is an energetically costly process though and food is medicine. What you eat is going to become the new stronger you. Focusing on high quality, nutrient dense meals will help your mood and fuel recovery. The extra weight will take care of itself in time when training volume increases again.
Other things that are useful
I quite serendipitously came across an article on injury by Robbie Ventura after you had tweeted me. It was a great article and I include the take homes here also. All of these are still applicable and valid!
Use your support network
I’m not going to cite any papers or provide references, this one is self evident - when it comes to recovery from injury, support networks are seriously important! This includes friends, family, health professionals and even your crutches - use them.
Later down the line
I’ve also recently written this article for someone else who was returning to training after injury. I think a lot of this will still be applicable to you also. Do check it out.
Injuries are opportunities
I’ll finish with this as I think its a powerful idea. Sadly the idea is not mine (check out Ben Rosenblatt for more on this). Every serious injury I’ve had though, no matter how bleak things might have seemed at the time have resulted in me coming back stronger. I’ve managed to return a better athlete every time, going on some wild adventures in the process. Injuries make you evaluate, focus and work on your weakness. Strangely, my injuries have even been the catalyst for me to change my profession and entire lifestyle. You are still the right side of 30 and as an endurance athlete, your best days are still ahead of you. What you make of this injury, and where you go on your athletic journey from here, really is up to you.
If you liked this article please share it with anyone you think might benefit. If you have any questions you want answering, please feel free to email me (email@example.com) or contact me on twitter @acbcoaching.
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY & STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING FOR TRIATHLON: INTEGRATING MIND AND BODY FOR A FASTER SWIM, BIKE, RUN
Having given a talk at the London Triathlon Show Tri Experts Theatre on Thursday, I couldn’t think of a good reason not to share my thoughts in blog format for those that couldn’t make it in person. I’ve changed a few things around and expanded the talk, so it’s both a bit of a hybrid, and a bit of a beast. For that reason, I’ve included a list of some take homes at the start. If you like what you see, hopefully within my ramblings you’ll enjoy digging deeper and find something that can be of use to your training.
Sport Psychology and Strength and Conditioning can be applied to your triathlon training in two ways:
through direct psychological interventions or gym routines
through a more subtle integration via an over-arching philosophy or perspective
Strength and Conditioning can help you develop athleticism and become a more robust athlete – allowing you to really focus on what matters – your swim, bike run.
Don’t waste time in the Gym! Performance Profiling is not exclusive to Sport Psychology, but a great way to ensure you address and integrate your specific needs into your S&C. This will allow you to keep it simple and make sure you aren’t spending longer than you need in the gym!
Consistency is perhaps one of the most important aspects of any training routine. It is a perquisite for effective progression, overload and guards against detraining.
Integrating various aspects self-determination theory into your S&C training can really help promote consistency.
View your training as an investment in yourself as both person and an athlete.
Most age-groupers lives are too busy and distracted to be worried about tedium getting in the way of training, but flexibility skills can really help you remain adaptable.
Mindfulness – if you haven't checked this out, you probably should
I began my talk with a brief introduction of my theoretical and practical experience en route to becoming an S&C coach. A fairly standard way in which to start any talk, but one that I hoped would also serve as a parallel to theme of ‘integration’ I had also hoped to convey. In the same way that I have aligned my resources and interests to attempt to make a living, I feel that both Sport Psychology and Strength and Conditioning should be channelled to improve triathlon training. It can be useful therefore, to think of two levels at which Sport Psychology and Strength and Conditioning can be applied to training for triathlon (or training for any athletic event for that matter).
The direct level, whereby you might decide to employ a given psychological intervention or routine in the gym (e.g. visualisation or 5 x 5), and
in a Gestalt manner.
Ok, so I just totally that made up and not even sure you can have something ‘at a gestalt level’, but I’m referring to the more subtle and indirect application that influences and permeates our perspective, philosophy and wider approach to training.
Whenever you give a talk I always find it useful to seek out the wisdom of far more sensible and successful people that yourself. Having mused about his philosophy of training quite recently I decided to frame the talk with an introduction to David Braislford’s and Team Sky’s ‘Aggregation of Marginal Gains’ or as Mr. Brailsford put it, to aim for
“that 1% improvement in everything we do”
Clearly, as demonstrated by the success within British cycling and Team Sky it seems like an effective approach – and one that both can be seen to have worked both in terms of the direct and novel physical /psychological interventions it employed, but also the over-arching philosophy and perspective it promoted.
It is novelty associated with the direct applications of the ‘Aggregation of Marginal Gains’ idea however that I think can be somewhat of a distraction from the true reason it is effective. When I think of the success in the tour of Team Sky, the mind conjures up images of jet black & blue uber-high tech Pinarellos, changing bedding each night and frequently washing hands to avoid risk of infection, and anything else that might happen aboard the ‘Death Star’! For the everyday athlete though, this is largely irrelevant. Simply put, if you want to add up all the 1%ers to a significant amount, first and foremost, it requires a tremendous amount of consistency and focus on getting the basics right. While a lot of these interventions are themselves obviously valid, their novelty distracts us from the inescapable – there much point in worrying about your massage oil if you forget to get out and train. I’m sure my intro was far more concise than above, but I eventually go to the point that it is the consistency, that other 99%, where the application of Sport Psychology and Strength and Conditioning is of true value.
With the scene set, I then went on to use the acronym of SPORT (Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Tedium) for the principles of exercise training to delve into a little more detail around how exactly Sport Psychology and Strength and Conditioning could be applied. I did however caveat these applications with the fact that Individuality or Individualism is another principle that is often discussed. I mentioned that I would deliberately approach things in more general terms during the talk, as without a detailed understanding of the wider context of a given individual, it is impossible to advise with any real sense of confidence – there is no one size fits all approach!
This one is a pretty simple idea, and is effectively, what you do is what you get. For a good example, this is something Brett Sutton’s coaching methodology seems to adopt at its very core. While I’d love to be able to tell you that S&C is the MOST important part of your training, it honestly never will be. Your swim, bike and run will always come first. When it comes to Strength and Conditioning for triathlon however, that doesn’t mean your time is wasted. Time spent on your S&C can help your triathlon in one of two ways – decreasing injury risk, or improving performance. As many of you will have found, hammering your swim-bike-run with no form of self-care or preventative work often leads to the inevitable. This is often the cost of specificity - imbalance. Since you are looking to become proficient in 3 sports at the same time, you really want to have a solid and robust foundation on which to add all the sport specific volume. I sometimes think that triathletes only see half the picture. They do the ‘Tri’ bit, but forget about the ‘athlete’ – attempting to become 3 types of athlete before they are one. Spend time developing and enhancing basic movement competency and athleticism and I promise you will reap the dividends.
Strength and Conditioning for Triathlon
So if Strength and Conditioning can primarily be seen as an enabler in allowing you to train more effectively – how should you do it? Well this is the golden question. One thing I hate to see, is the well-intentioned triathlete who actually manages to get in the gym, then spends their time ‘cross-training’ on the rower or elliptical. If you want to put something like this as a short feature as part of your warm up – fine. I don’t even have any problem if you are in the gym to use the treadmill or wattbike as an actual bike or run session in their own right. But if you are in the gym to develop athleticism and strength, and turn yourself into a more robust triathlete, use your time effectively. Triathletes spend almost all their training developing their aerobic capability. When you are in the gym, do what you can’t do elsewhere. Target your limiters with some time-efficient ‘homework’ or prehab work during your warm up (15mins tops). These are normally what I refer to as the ‘usual suspects’ – lack of pelvic/trunk control, hip or thoracic mobility - ten a penny in desk-dwelling triathletes!
During your main set, aim to build strength and athleticism through a variety of single and double arm/legged compound lifts. Not because they offer some sort of panacea, but because they offer a lot of bang for your buck. By their nature, they will also help you develop proficiency in many of the sport specific requirements of triathlon and go a good way to help stave off the reoccurrence of the ‘usual suspects’ listed above.
Most of you will definitely want to get some advice on how best to construct this, but if you are feeling brave and wish to have a go at putting something together for yourself - remember to keep it simple and be systematic. Use performance profiling to look at what your sport requires, be realistic about where you are currently and set about getting there!
As a small aside, when we consider the specificity of the adaptations we are looking to stimulate through strength and conditioning, the timing of your S&C sessions relative to endurance training can be a great ally. Because the science would seem to suggest that endurance work inhibits strength gains, but not the other way around, if you train twice a day, do you strength work second. Preferably you’ll separate your strength and aerobic sessions by at least 6, if not 12-24 hours!
Progression, Overload, Reversibility
Bottom line – execution of these three fundamental exercise principles in a training plan, requires consistency. Consistency is therefore an inescapable requirement in any effective plan. As categorical as that statement may seem, ‘just turning up’ is often easier said than done. But, we can once again look to sport psychology to help develop applications through our strength and conditioning programming that can help boost consistency. How? Well two things often get in the way of us completing our training: either life gets in the way, or we let life get in the way (we don’t really want to – i.e our motivation).
Motivation in Triathlon
Motivation is a huge topic when it comes to sport psychology, and Self-Determination Theory developed by Deci and Ryan is a ‘big player’ in that area. It is concerned with the regulation of behaviour (how self-determined we are) and views motivation on a continuum. At one end of the continuum is Amotivation, where an individual lacks any motivation or attempt to perform that behaviour – perhaps a triathlete who doesn’t do any strength and conditioning because they don’t understand the benefits and wouldn’t know where to start anyway. At the other end of the scale is Intrinsic motivation, the most self-determined we can get - this might be a triathlete who hits the gym just because they love hitting the gym, they don’t even care how great might be for their triathlon training. The more self-determined behaviour, the more positive the outcomes, the greater the sporting experience, attitude and most importantly, persistence! Great, so we want self-determined behaviour, but how?!
Well, a sub-theory of Self-determination theory is Cognitive Evaluation Theory (stay with me guys). Again Deci and Ryan wanted to find out what influenced self-determination. Lots of research and thinking later and they suggested that Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness were the three key psychological needs were crucial to culturing self-determined behaviour. These are three things I try to include in the architecture of Strength and Conditioning training to boost your chances of getting in the gym consistently!
Competence – Have 1 key exercise you pour your focus into every session. Make it a key lift that you WILL progress. This is useful especially when you’ve been hitting the gym for a while and gains are harder to come by. 1 simple goal of progression that you can achieve will improve your perception that you are able to meet your desired outcomes. Happy days!
Autonomy – In addition to making sure an athlete understands the benefits of S&C and subsequently has choosen to partake in the activity (most important), it can be useful to offer a choice of exercises to deliver a given benefit – there are many variations of a hinge movement for example. As a coach, I’d sacrifice the finer details of a programme every time, if I can consistently get an athlete is in the gym, performing roughly the right kind of exercises, with good form at the right intensity.
Relatedness – We all seem like to feeling supported and accepted by others. Gym work is well-suited to having a ‘gym buddy’, who can jump in during your rest periods and perform their sets. Find someone at your club who’s keen to progress with you and it should really help you to deliver week in, week out. Whiles ‘its all you’ when you get under the bar, it doesn’t have to be that way to get you to turn up.
The Pain Community?
With all the endurance work you will be doing, strength is going to take time and dedication to build, so it can also be useful to address your perspective with regard to Strength and Conditioning. Matt Fitzgerald’s book Iron War talks quite extensively about how triathlon can be seen as a ‘Pain Community’. How through shared experience of physical and mental suffering, we are bound together. I certainly think there is a lot of truth in this, but perhaps with a slight adjustment to the way we look at our training can get a whole lot more out of it. In a world of ‘Smash-fests’ ‘Sufferfests’ and ‘MTFU’ what is wrong with being kind to yourself? Triathlon should be something we do because we enjoy it! Yeah, sure its fun to come out the other side of a demanding workout or race, and ‘overload’ is something we are definitely looking to achieve, but what’s wrong with being a little nicer to ourselves. This is our ‘me’ time. If we see it purely as a time when we are breaking ourselves down, or punishing ourselves, there is going to be a limit to how much we can take. That’s why I advocate thinking of time in the gym as an investment. An investment in yourself as both a person and an athlete. A time when you are building a foundation for health and performance – not going at yourself with a sledgehammer. Training sessions are a bit like going to the bank. Next time you go, will you be paying in, or cashing out?
Finally we get to Tedium. This is often known as the variety principle too. Variety is important, because in many ways we want to build an adaptable, not an adapted athlete. It seems like most age-groupers lives, season plans and training schedules are WAY too busy and frantic to be boring, and so the problem is often the opposite. Its actually uncommon to see boredom as the reason an athlete fails string together a really consistent (there is that word again) and progressive block of meaningful training. Rarely is programming variety the reason that an athlete has reached a plateau, its more likely that the progression, overload and consistency is not there.
This is where developing psychological flexibility can really help. The ability to be able to take life’s curve balls in your stride is extremely useful. Since triathletes have a tendency to view things as very ‘black and white’, a small programming hiccup can often seem borderline catastrophic, psychologically undermining an entire week or month of training. Rarely are things so cut and dry. If this does sound like you, try the YES/NO exercise. Pick 5 things that you normally say YES to (e.g. filling out your Heart rate in the morning, or taking your garmin with you on a run), and 5 things you normally say NO to (a forbidden food perhaps). Choose 1 each day of each and try out the opposite. It’ll definitely feel weird, and you probably won’t like it at first. Follow it through though, and observe how you feel. Perhaps not so bad eh? (Oh, and you aren’t allowed to go back and ‘undo’ what you did in either situation. Just deal with it!)
Mindfulness for Triathlon
For the top age-groupers and pros and dedicated individuals who really are reaching a plateau due to tedium in training again, performance profiling can again help you stay on track. This will help bring a ‘meta-awareness’ and sense of purpose to each and every session. Training isn’t always fun, but deferred gratification can be a powerful thing if you manage to master it. I won’t go into depth about it, because it has been done to death, but Mindfulness practice can also be very useful for the bored athlete. Culturing a moment to moment, non-judgemental awareness can really help to reframe and bored feelings you might have. Just observing a situation will often change its very nature. I’d highly recommend Headspace app for this. They have a good free introduction to mindfulness training and subsequent premium sessions that can easily be applied to your triathlon training and lifestyle!
You made it! Although that was a far longer blog than I anticipated, I hope its been of use. Sport Psychology and Strength and Conditioning have a myriad of application to triathlon training, and it can be hard to know where to start. If you liked this article, please do share it, and if you have any questions please do email me (firstname.lastname@example.org) or tweet me @acbcoaching. One question at the talk was about whether I might recommend strength training year round. In short – yes! While I’d certainly periodise training in the gym and strength work around major races, you are looking to be your strongest when you race. Surely that’s the point? It therefore makes little sense to do all your gym work in the winter then be at your weakest come race day in the summer! So a definite yes to some strength training year round! If you have any more or any feedback on how you integrated any of this into your training, I’d love to hear you! In whatever ways you do try to apply Sport Psychology and Strength and Conditioning to your training – make sure you don’t stray too far from the S.P.O.R.T. principles and keep it personalised!